COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ÉCLAIRAGE - Hongrie

INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ILLUMINATION CIE - Hungary

INTERNATIONALE BELEUCHTUNGSKOMMISSION CIE - Ungarn
CIE PRESS RELEASE

December 2014

CIE Standard General Sky Guide

CIE 215:2014                                             ISBN 978-3-902842-54-1                                  

This report collects information for the application of the CIE Standard General Sky for general users and designers. The guide provides an explanation of the CIE Standard General Sky concept, which is described in ISO 15469:2004/CIE S 011:2003, and of its simplified use by practitioners. The document includes an extensive list of references on the subject and gives recommendations for prediction methods, tools and computer programs.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 77 pages with 21 figures and 10 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 162,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


October 2014

Effect of Instrumental Bandpass Function and Measurement Interval on Spectral Quantities

CIE 214:2014                                             ISBN 978-3-902842-53-4                               

This report presents a detailed study of bandwidth correction applied to spectra encountered in radiometric, photometric and spectrophotometric measurements. The mechanism of broadening of data recorded by both scanning and array spectrometers, due to bandpass function effects, is discussed in detail, along with an historical study of methods currently applied. The report presents a bandwidth correction algorithm that can be used for any real bandpass function and provides both a step-by-step guide on how to apply that correction, and a discussion of the theoretical and experimental limits to its applicability.

The effect of noise and measurement interval in measurement of both the spectrum and the bandpass function is discussed and methods for identifying the significance of noise effects in the corrected spectrum are presented. The reduced effect of noise when calculating spectrally integrated quantities (such as photometric or colorimetric values) is also examined. Practical guidelines are given for the application of bandwidth correction, both for the determination of the bandpass function and for estimating whether the correction may lead to an improvement in spectral accuracy.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 84 pages with 48 figures and 4 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 162,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


August 2014

Guide to Protocols for Describing Lighting

CIE 213:2014                                             ISBN 978-3-902842-52-7                                  

Lighting quality encompasses human needs, architectural integration and economic constraints (including energy). To develop information about the luminous conditions that will fulfil lighting quality goals in various settings one needs to know how people respond, in the broadest sense, to electromagnetic radiation detected by the eye and processed by various physiological systems. Common definitions and measurement protocols for lighting installations are needed to support this work and to support communication with designers. This guide, the work of CIE Technical Committee 3-34, establishes a catalogue of application-independent descriptors of lighting and protocols associated with each descriptor. The committee developed a system of two categories of descriptors: basic descriptors, which ought to be reported in any project and which can generally be measured with relatively simple equipment, and specialized descriptors, which will not always be required and the measurement of which is more complex. This document is intended to aid the development of lighting quality concepts by providing a common basis for communication about the luminous conditions, existing or planned, in a space. By using the definitions provided here, and by following the protocols and the overall procedure, writers and readers alike can come to a deeper understanding of the physical conditions that stimulate human responses to light in the built environment.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 76 pages with 41 figures and 6 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 120,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


July 2014

Colour Appearance in Peripheral Vision

ISO/CIE 19476:2014                 Joint ISO/CIE International Standard                                    

This joint ISO/CIE International Standard is replacing CIE International Standard CIE S 023/E:2013 without modification of its technical content.

The standard defines quality indices characterizing the performance of illuminance and luminance meters in a general lighting measurement situation, as well as measurement procedures for the individual indices and standard calibration conditions.

Measurements of illuminance or luminance and their accuracy are influenced by various parameters, such as operational conditions, properties of light sources, as well as characteristics of the applied photometers. The characteristics of these photometers alone do not allow the determination of the measurement uncertainty for a specific measurement task. Nevertheless, it is generally true that instruments with “better” characteristics in most cases produce smaller uncertainties than instruments with “worse” properties. This standard has been written to:

  • give clear and unambiguous definitions for the individual quality indices;
  • define measurement procedures and methods for numerical evaluation of these quality indices;
  • define calibration conditions for illuminance meters and luminance meters.

Where different, the definitions of the quality indices and the associated measurement procedures and methods for numerical evaluation given in this standard supersede those given in CIE Publication 53-1982. CIE publication 69-1987 has been superseded by this standard.

This ISO/CIE International Standard has been approved by the CIE National Committees and by ISO. It is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

Price of this ISO/CIE International Standard: EUR 135,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).

The standard is also available in French version as ISO/CIE 19476:2014(F) Caractérisation des performances des luxmetres et des luminancemetres.


June 2014

Colour Appearance in Peripheral Vision

CIE 211:2014                                           ISBN 978-3-902842-47-3                                    

This report describes colour zone maps, which are the contour maps showing unique hue components for the red, dark yellow, yellow, green and blue stimuli, over the entire visual expanse based on experimental results using hue and saturation judgements. Characteristics of colour-appearance change in the entire visual expanse show basically the same tendency as those in previous studies using a similar method. Estimation of a unique hue component in a peripheral position utilizing the colour zone map is described with an example.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 22 pages with 7 figures and 1 table and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 72,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


May 2014

Photometry Using V(lambda)-Corrected Detectors as Reference and Transfer Standards

CIE 210:2014                                                  ISBN 978-3-902842-50-3                                    

This publication provides recommendations of the CIE concerning the use of V(lambda)-corrected detectors as reference and transfer standards for photometric units. Specifically it includes the construction, characterization and directions for use of standard photometers for such purposes.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 34 pages with 11 figures and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 90,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


March 2014

Effect of Stimulus Size on Colour Appearance

CIE 208:2014                                       ISBN 978-3-902842-36-7                                    

This report deals with the effect of stimulus size on colour appearance for the case of large (> 20°) colour stimuli. Neither the standard observers nor the CIECAM02 model can predict the colour size effect, i.e. the different colour appearance of large stimuli compared to a standard size stimulus. This report defines the concept of equivalent colour to describe large size colour stimuli in terms of standard 2° stimuli of equal colour appearance.

There is only little research dealing with the effect of stimulus size. This report refers to a few projects on colour appearance of real life rooms, façades and immersive self-luminous displays. In the laboratory tests there is a trend that the perceived colour of the large stimulus exhibits a higher lightness and a higher chroma than the small one. Significant hue changes were also observed.

Results from real life studies do not always agree with those from laboratory tests. One reason for this could be that there are several other factors that interact with the colour size effect and influence the colour appearance of large stimuli. Therefore, the tentative mathematical models of this Report are intended to describe only specific viewing situations.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 25 pages with 11 figures and 2 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 90,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount).


February 2014

Sensitivity of Human Skin to Ultraviolet Radiation,
Expressed as Minimal Erythema Dose (MED)

CIE 207:2014                                       ISBN 978-3-902842-34-3                                         

Sensitivity of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) varies dramatically depending on its colour and also varies within each colour band. Yet, public health policies regarding UVR exposure of human skin are mostly based on our knowledge of the UVR effects in only one skin type class: fair-skinned White Caucasians. This report gives a review of the different approaches to predicting and measuring UVR sensitivity using the Minimal Erythema Dose (MED). The MED is defined as the smallest amount of radiation that causes a noticeable reddening of the skin in an individual after a single exposure (evaluated 1 day post-exposure). Ultraviolet radiation is used to diagnose and treat skin conditions in patients with a broad range of complexions (skin colour) from very fair to very dark. Occupational UVR exposures also concern workers representing all types of skin. A sizable proportion of the population in Western countries uses UVR-emitting indoor tanning equipment. Environmental UVR can induce damage in human skin of all complexions. This report recommends a new and simplified approach for categorization of human skin, based on their predisposition to sunburn (UVR-induced erythema). This categorization scheme is expected to facilitate modernization of public health policies.

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 29 pages with 4 figures and 6 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 90,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount.)


January 2014

The Effect of Spectral Power Distribution on
Lighting for Urban and Pedestrian Areas

CIE 206:2014                                      ISBN 978-3-902842-33-6      

                                  
Lighting design for roads in urban and pedestrian areas considers primarily the needs of pedestrians rather than drivers. This report presents a summary of recent research on the implications of lamp spectrum for those tasks considered to be important for pedestrians. These tasks include detection of pavement obstacles, inter-personal judgements such as facial recognition, and judgement of brightness. For pedestrians, brightness is important because brighter lighting tends to produce higher levels of perceived safety in a particular location.

It has been found that in the mesopic region lamps with a higher scotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio appear brighter, and permit better detection of peripheral obstacles, than do lamps with lower S/P-ratios at the same illuminance. This means that lamps with a high S/P-ratio can be used either at the same illuminance to create a higher brightness and better detection of peripheral obstacles or at a lower illuminance but the same brightness and obstacle detection ability, the latter leading to a reduction in energy consumption. The CIE recommended system of mesopic photometry can be used to predict brightness and peripheral obstacle detection under lamps having different spectra.

Further visual needs include facial recognition and that the appearance of the environment is acceptable. How light spectrum affects the ability to recognize the identity of other people is still uncertain, but there is a suggestion that chromatic information can be of benefit. As for the acceptability of the appearance of the environment, this is more consistently related to the colour rendering of the light source. For these visual needs colour rendering is important in addition to the S/P-ratio, but there are insufficient data with which to fully characterize the effects.

Given these findings it is possible to modify the illuminances used in residential roads when using different light sources. These illuminances should be chosen based on two characteristics of the light source, S/P-ratio and colour rendering index (CRI). The report includes new guidance in the United Kingdom (UK) in which a reduction in the illuminance from the levels recommended in the S-series of lighting classes can be considered when using lamps which have a CIE general colour rendering index greater than or equal to 60; the reduction is calculated using the CIE recommended system of mesopic photometry. The UK guidance assumes that low pressure sodium lighting is the reference for the S-series of lighting classes. Other countries that choose to follow the system adopted in the UK can modify the approach to take account of different benchmark lighting. For example, if the high pressure sodium lamp (which is in widespread use in Europe) is used as the benchmark, the allowed reduction in illuminance will be less than that allowed in the UK.

Other factors, in addition to the influence of lamp spectrum on vision, may also need to be considered when selecting the most appropriate lighting. These are discussed in the final section of the report, and include effects of lighting on the natural environment, glare, and the impact of changes in the eye that occur with age. The increase in visual effectiveness offered by lamps optimized for use in the mesopic region (i.e. higher S/P ratio) may be lower for older persons than for the rest of the population, and such lamps may lead to increased discomfort glare effects for these older observers. In general, the use of ‘white’ light in street lighting applications is beneficial, provided that these other factors are also taken into account and are not significantly impacted (e.g. provided glare is not significantly increased).

The publication is written in English, with a short summary in French and German. It consists of 38 pages with 4figures and 8 tables and is readily available at the National Committees of the CIE or via the CIE Webshop.

The price of this publication is EUR 135,- (Members of the National Committees of the CIE get 66,7 % discount.)


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